To summarise, the alternative opinions that this article has presented to facilitate summer fasting for Muslims who live north of 48 degrees irrespective of the sunset are:
(1) to fast according to the calendar of Makkah or Medina;
(2) to fast according to the calendar of the closest region with moderate timings;
(3) to fast starting from Fajr for a maximum of sixteen hours based on 45 degrees of latitude;
(4) to fast from Fajr to a maximum of 18 hours based on 48 degrees of latitude.
Given the above diversity of ijtihad or juridical reasoning regarding the length of the summer fast in the northern regions of the world, it is my view that every Muslim must consider these opinions and follow that which will enable her or him to fulfil this fundamental pillar of our faith. Fasting during Ramadan is an obligation on every Muslim wherever they live on earth. I have striven to present several equally valid opinions in this article that in my view more accurately fulfil the objectives of this blessed month.