The Hijri New Year is the day that marks the beginning of a new Islamic calendar year. This first day of the year is the first day of Muharram.
The Hijri calendar started in the year 622 AD with the emigration of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) from Makkah to Madinah, known as the Hijra.
In fact, Muslims use this lunar Hijri calendar to calculate times of prayers, fasting, Hajj and other religious celebrations. While some determine the new month by moon sightings, most Islamic countries follow astronomical calculations.
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A Hijri day starts at sunset. Thus, observing the crescent of a new Hijri month occurs during the sunset. If the crescent sets before the sunset, this means there is no new month. If it sets after the sunset, this means the beginning of the new month.
In fact, the lunar Hijri year is eleven to twelve days shorter than the solar Gregorian year. Thus, the Hijri New Year, Muharram 1, doesn’t come on the same day of the Gregorian calendar every year.
Muharram is one of the four sacred months of the Hijri year. And Muslims consider it the second holiest month after Ramadan.
New Hijri Year 1442
The Astronomical New Moon (conjunction) is on August 19, 2020 (Wednesday) at 2:41 UT. On August 19, the crescent may only be visible in Central and South Americas with difficulty and in Polynesian Islands easily.
On August 20, it can be seen in almost the whole world.
This practically means that the New Hijri Year, the first day of the month of Muharram, will take place on Thursday the 21st of August 2020 God willing.