When do we pay zakat? It varies depending on the commodities or the product. When we talk about gold and silver, a lunar year (Islamic Hijri calendar) must elapse. We must take 2.5% of the surplus wealth we have to pay in zakat.
There is something called nisab and this is the ultimate threshold. Zakat is your surplus wealth once it reaches a certain threshold. Gold in particular is 85 grams and silver is roughly 595 grams. If you have what is equivalent to 85 grams of gold and it has been with you for a lunar year, then you must pay zakat. If you have $4190 in your bank account (this is equivalent to 85 grams of gold) for a full lunar year, then you take 2.5% of that and pay zakat.
Concerning crop yields, if there is irrigation induced labour, then you take 5% of that. If there isn’t irrigation induced labour, then it is 10%. The amount you must reach is roughly 653 kilograms. A lunar year doesn’t have to elapse on that. Once it reaches that amount you pay the zakat.
When we talk about animals, it is more descriptive. Depending on the animal, once they reach a certain number, then that is the zakatable amount. Shariah talks about the type of animal.
When we talk about zakat then there is a certain time frame that we all must follow.