In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.
In this fatwa:
It is not permissible to suspend the congregational prayers and Friday prayer over coronavirus unless the local public health authorities advise the suspension of services at the houses of worship and avoidance of large public gatherings.
People with symptoms of the disease should avoid coming to the mosques if they suspect that they may be infected until they check with their healthcare providers and ensure they are not.
The Assembly of Muslim Jurists in America (AMJA) received several inquiries regarding the current outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the proper response by the mosques and individual Muslims. In response, AMJA Resident Fatwa Committee issued the following statement:
First: concerning the managements of the Islamic centers
It is not permissible for the mosques and Islamic centers to suspend the congregational prayers and Friday prayer because of the spread of the coronavirus in the United States, unless the local public health authorities in a particular city advise the suspension of services at the houses of worship and avoidance of large public gatherings.
In the event of that development, the mosque managements should comply with such instructions. This would be a sufficient excuse to pray Friday at home (as Zhuhr) until the restriction is removed.
It is permissible for the mosque managements to demand those with flu symptoms to wear masks during the congregational prayers.
It is also permissible to assign a room for them or a designated area in the prayer hall, and to advise them to avoid handshaking with the other worshippers and follow the proper precautions to prevent the transmission of the disease.
The mosque managements should follow the updates that are periodically issued by the public health agencies like CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and comply with their instructions.
Second: concerning the Muslim public
The permissibility of missing Friday and congregational prayers out of fear of the disease depends on several variables. As for the daily congregational prayers, the matter is simpler since they are not obligatory according to the majority. The majority of those who considered them obligatory did not demand their performance at a mosque.
As for the Friday prayer, it is not permissible for adult men who are otherwise required to attend it to miss it except in the case of justifiable, not conjectural, fear.
What matters in this regard is the instructions of the public health authorities. If they advise the avoidance of all public gatherings, then the epidemic has reached a level making that fear justifiable.
As for the higher risk groups, such as old people and those with chronic disease, they should follow the advice of their primary healthcare providers. They are most entitled to concessions.
People with symptoms of the disease (which are like those of flu) should avoid coming to the mosques if they suspect that they may be infected until they check with their healthcare providers and ensure they are not.
This is because the harm of spreading this virus is much greater than that of bothering the people with the odor of garlic; and Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, “He who eats of this plant (garlic) should not come near our masjid and should not bother us with the odor of garlic.”
We ask Allah for safety and well-being for ourselves and all people.
Almighty Allah knows best.