Salam Dear Ghufran,
Thank you for your question and for contacting Ask About Islam.
Do we really have different races? This is a question that the following analysis should answer with a big “NO”. Biological life is controlled by the DNA of the respective species, and of the individual members of the species.
Contrary to the theory of Darwinian evolution, each species has its own unique basic DNA type, so that macro-evolution from one species to another is impossible. Otherwise, millions of transitional species with transitional DNA could have existed. Not a single such example was ever observed or detected.
Hence, all human beings have the same basic type of DNA, so that the basic traits and functions of the human organs, tissues and various types of cells are the same. So, biologically, humanity is one basic race. Variations between individuals are due to detailed differences in the genetic code, unique for every individual.
Apparent variations in body color, hair and facial forms are due to differences in the genes controlling these traits.
Although each baby inherits genes from both parents, transmitted to him via the original father’s sperm and mother’s ovum (each with their 23 DNA carrying chromosomes), yet the resulting genes should not necessarily be identical with either the father’s or mother’s.
They can even be different from both father’s and mother’s when either of them carries and transmits to their offspring the so-called “recessive” genes, inherited in turn from earlier generations.
Further, there is no logical reason why the combination of a sperm with an ovum would not produce something totally different even in the absence of such recessive genes.
Science has shown that the mere variations in the sequence and spatial distribution of the four nucleotides (adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine) in a gene, common to all creatures, could produce such huge myriads of biological traits and functions.
The only explanation is that an individual’s genetic code is dictated by an “Intelligent Designer or Programmer” and not by random chance. With the same token, the genes of an offspring could be similar or dissimilar to the parents, according to the will of the same “Intelligent Designer.”
As for Adam and Eve, you can see from the above analysis, without quoting the Quran, that their offspring could have traits such as skin color, hair and facial forms, different from either parents. They (Adam and Eve) could as well have carried a variety of genes similar to the concept of recessive genes.
Either way, from the same Adam and Eve, resulted in the different races. In fact, “race” is an old term and concept that modern genetic science has shown to be meaningless, but has been satanically exploited to justify all sorts of racial hatred, arrogance, tyranny, and discrimination.
I hope this answers your question. Please keep in touch.