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Plants in Qur’an: Date Palm

Plants in Qur'an: Date Palm - About Islam

At Times of War

Prior to the advent of Islam, date palms, particularly the highly valued male trees, were often cut down and destroyed in battles between tribes. However, this practice was strongly discouraged by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and subsequent leaders and viewed as an act of “sacrilege on this earth” (Farooqi, 1997).

During military expeditions, soldiers were instructed not to harm innocent people, nor to cut down any vegetation. However, during the siege of the Banu Nadir tribe in Madinah, Muslims were forced to cut down date palms to “facilitate the movement of the army” (Farooqi, 1997).

The Banu Nadir were angry and wanted to know how the Prophet, “who always forbade corruption and injustice and castigated their perpetrators” (Haykal, 1990), could command the destruction of their orchards. This act greatly saddened the Muslims but was deemed necessary. A verse was revealed at this time that indicated the permissibility of their action in these circumstances.

“And what you (O Muslims) cut down of the palm-trees (of the enemy), or you left them standing on their stems, it was by leave of Allah, and in order that He might disgrace the Fasiqun (the rebellious, disobedient to Allah).” (Surat Al-Hashr 59:5).

Palm Basics

The date palm, which is most commonly unbranched, can grow up to 30 meters. Its 4-5 meter long leaves surround the trunk in a spiral pattern. Branched forms of the date palm also occur (See Surah Ar-Ra’d above).

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Date palms produce between five and ten bunches of dates per tree. A single large bunch may contain more than a thousand dates and can weigh between 6 to 8 kg. They begin to bear fruit at 3 to 5 years and reach full production after 10-12 years. Date palms can survive up to 150 years.

Date fruits vary in size, shape, and color. This drupe fruit is characterized by its thin skin, succulent, soft flesh and hard stone or seed in the middle. Unripe dates are green in color, maturing to yellow, then reddish-brown when fully ripe. Each of these states (green to ripe) has been given a particular name in Arabic.

The tree is grown in a nearly rainless belt in the Sahara, as well as in the Middle East in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, and Iraq. The variety of dates that are produced amount to 600 according to a report by the Agronomy and Range Science Management Department at the University of California.

In three date-producing countries, Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria, there is reported to be about 1,000 varieties of dates. Many of these varieties experience neglect and face possible extinction as efforts are concentrated on prized varieties (Campbell).

The date market in the noble city of Madinah, the Souq al-Tumour, sells about 150 varieties, differing in color, shape, taste, and price!

References:

  • Agronomy and Range Science Management Department. The crop of the day: The Date, Phoenix dactylifera.
  • http://agronomy.ucdavis.edu/gepts/ pb143/CROP/Date/Date.htm
  • Al-Shahib, W and Marshall, RJ, 1993. The fruit of the date palm: it’s possible use as the best food for the future? International Journal of Food and Science Nutrition, 54(4): 247-259.
  • Campbell, FA, no date. GEF steps in as 1000 date varieties in danger.
  • http://www.gefweb.org/Whats_New /Archives/GEF_Steps_in.pdf
  • Farooqi, I, 1997. Plants of the Qur’an. Sidrah Publishers: India.
  • Haouari, N, Wood, C, Griffiths, G and Levene, M, 1995. The analgesic effect of sucrose in full-term infants: a randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal 310:1498-1500. (http://www.bmj.com)
  • Haykal, MI, 1990. The life of Muhammad. Crescent Publishing Company: India.
  • Kasapis, S, no date. Dates: A fruit of promise for the food industry. http://www.nizwa.net/agr/dates/ datefruit/datefruit.html
  • Nasr, SH, 1976. Islamic Science: An illustrated guide. World of Islam Festival Publishing Company Ltd.: England.
  • Omar-Muhammad, R, 2003. Dates: The crown of sweets. The Muslim Woman, 4(7): 26.
  • Relief of Pain: A Medical Discovery. Islamic Voice, 15-04: 172.
  • http://www.islamicvoice.com/april.2001/quran.htm

This article is from our archive, originally published on an earlier date, and now republished for its importance.

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