Wa `alaykum As-Salamu wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh.
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.
In this fatwa:
In his response to your question, the eminent Muslim scholar Dr. Sabri `Abder-Ra’ouf Muhammad, Professor of comparative fiqh at Al-Azhar University and a member of the Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs, states:
Allah Almighty says: “Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah, those who can afford the journey.” (Aal `Imran 3:97)
This verse asserts that Hajj is obligatory only on those who can afford the journey to the Sacred House.
If the deceased has left a will that someone performs Hajj on his/her behalf, one of the heirs should do it.
If the deceased has left no such will, the heirs may/may not perform Hajj on his or her behalf.
In either case, it is agreed upon among scholars that the person who will perform Hajj on behalf of the deceased must have performed Hajj on his/her own behalf.
In this regard it was reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) heard a man saying, “O Allah! Here I am at Your service on behalf of Shubrumah.” The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked him, “Who is Shubrumah?” He replied, “A brother (or a relative) of mine.” The Prophet then asked again, “Have you performed Hajj on your own behalf?” The man replied, “No,” whereupon the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “You must perform Hajj on your own behalf first, and then you may perform Hajj on Shubrumah’s.”
As for performing Umrah for oneself before performing Hajj on someone else’s behalf, scholars do not regard the former as a prerequisite for the latter.
This is because Hajj is obligatory, while `Umrah is voluntary. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “Hajj is (a kind) of jihad, and `Umrah is a voluntary act.”
Hence, sister in Islam, you are not required to travel for Umrah before performing Hajj on your mother’s behalf, if you have already performed Hajj on your own behalf.
Your Hajj on your mother’s behalf in this case will be valid, Allah willing. May Allah accept Hajj from you and reward you for your gratitude towards your late mother.
Allah Almighty knows best.
Editor’s note: This fatwa is from Ask the Scholar’s archive and was originally published at an earlier date.