Wa `alaykum as-salam warahmatullahi wabarakatuh.
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.
Sister, thanks for your important question. We ask Allah Almighty to guide us all to the straight path of Islam.
Divorce is one of the rights that Islam grants to husbands. In most cases, a husband can claim that right. However, there are also some cases in which a wife can terminate marriage; for example, by means of khul` (wife’s right to obtain divorce under certain conditions).
In her response to your question, Zeinab Al-`Alwani, instructor of fiqh and Islamic studies at the Graduate School of Islamic and Social Sciences, stated:
The issue is not as simple as you described. Islam teaches fairness and equity for both sides. It also puts obstacles in the way of divorce, rather than making it a simple process as you said.
For example, a husband is not allowed to divorce his wife when he is very angry or when his wife is in her menstrual period. He is also not allowed to divorce his wife if an intimate relation took place between two menstrual periods.
So, the process of divorce is not that simple. In Islam, the concept of family is highly emphasized, and the process of terminating marriage is not simple at all.
However, a woman has the right to seek divorce through khul`, which means that she can obtain divorce on her own as well.
You needn’t look for “technical equality.” In fact, you need to understand the entire Islamic system for divorce, which takes many aspects into consideration, such as the well-being of the family, children, etc. Equality between a husband and wife may not be identical, but equity and fairness are secured.
Almighty Allah knows best.