Short Answer: “Due reliance” in the Hadith can mean two things: One, the spontaneous feeling of complete reliance a person feels towards his Lord and Sustainer. Second, the proper measure of reliance a human as a creation of Allah has to place on Allah.
Thank you for your question and for contacting Ask About Islam.
In attempting a response to your question I would like to first read the above hadith from your point of view, i.e. from the point of view of a non-believer.
There are a couple of questions that arise here:
1. The hadith says that even birds that do not understand who God is, let alone consciously “rely” on God, do get their food. So what is the meaning of placing so much of emphasis on “reliance”?
2. Also you asked what is meant by “due reliance”?
Allah Almighty is the Creator and Sustainer of the whole universe and everything in it.
His Mercy encompasses all of His creation, and even the tiniest unicellular being is a recipient of His overarching Mercy.
Allah says in the Qur’an:
“Say: “To whom belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth?” Say: “To Allah. He has inscribed for Himself (the rule of) Mercy” (Qur’an 6:12)
“My Mercy overspreads everything.” (Qur’an 7:156)
And He created man and placed him on the earth as His khalifah, meaning vicegerent or ambassador. (See Qur’an 2:30)
Thus we can see that humans possess the kind of creative faculties that only Allah can bestow; such as reasoning power, analytical skill and imaginative insight.
And what is more, they enjoy the freedom (though not unlimited) to use the above faculties not only to better their living conditions, but also to creatively transform the world around them.
The foregoing means:
(1) From the Islamic point of view, humans as the representatives of Allah on earth need to accept Him as their Sovereign Lord and Law-Giver.
(2) And secondly, they need to realize that they are helpless to manage their affairs on their own, and so have to rely on Allah for all their affairs.
How Allah Fulfills the Needs of His Creatures
In the hadith quoted above, the keyword is “reliance”.
About reliance, you raise the question whether it is possible for a person to have “too much reliance” or “not enough reliance”.
Now isn’t it possible for us to compare the degree of a person’s reliance on God with another person’s?
For instance, here is someone who seeks Allah’s help before he starts any activity. And there is another person who doesn’t do that; but prays to God for help only when he is confronted with a threat to his safety.
Can’t we say that the first person’s reliance on God is greater than that of the other?
“Due reliance” can mean two things: One, the spontaneous feeling of complete reliance a person feels towards his Lord and Sustainer.
Second, the proper measure of reliance a human as a creation of Allah has to place on Allah. I understand that both these senses are relevant in the context of the hadith.
Comparing Humans & Birds
Now what is the difference between birds and humans in this matter?
Birds are natural Muslims (those who submit to Allah): that is to say, they have no choice but to follow their nature, which is part of Allah’s sunnah – namely Allah’s Law as evinced in nature and the universe. And Allah feeds them.
But humans are beings in nature – let us say living their animal lives – and as such they too are fed the same way; since they too have no choice but to follow Allah’s Law of Nature.
But humans are beings appointed by Allah as His khalifah on earth. As mentioned above this means that they have the faculties of reasoning, logical analysis etc.
So they can understand who Allah is, and thus can exercise their choice to consciously acknowledge their reliance on Allah or to ignore or reject the very idea of reliance on God.
The hadith does not mention this subtle difference between birds and humans; but only emphasizes the concept of reliance on Allah.
The point underscored is how both birds and humans (consciously or unconsciously) rely on Allah to fulfill their needs.
And it is also worthy to note here that if a bird or animal does not get its food and dies; it is also Allah’s Law of Nature working; and it is not the failure of Allah.
And Allah knows best.
I hope that this answers your question.
Salam. Please stay in touch.
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